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PCB鉚釘技術簡介

time : 2022-07-11 10:58       作者:凡億pcb

電(dian)子行業(ye)發展迅(xun)猛,對PCB(印刷(shua)電(dian)路板)制造行業(ye)的需求日益增(zeng)(zeng)加,包括不(bu)斷上升的電(dian)路板層,越來越高的跟蹤密度和不(bu)斷變薄的內部層,所有這些(xie)都是導致層疊(die)和層壓技(ji)術的重要性日益增(zeng)(zeng)加。
為了防止在疊層過程中發生質量問題,例如錯位,在多層過程中層疊前通常要求融合PCB制造工藝。與傳統的融合技術相比,現代融合技術具有高效,易操作,低成本等優點,使其易于進行多層PCB制作。本文從融合PCB制造的基礎技術出發,探討影響融合效應的參數因素和融合技術的應用水平,為獲得最佳融合參數提供可靠的參考。
 
原理融(rong)合技術
 
作為一種傳統(tong)技術(shu),鉚(liu)釘(ding)技術(shu)已廣泛應用(yong)于PCB板(ban)制造。然而,鉚(liu)釘(ding)技術(shu)也存在(zai)一些缺點(dian),例如由于鉚(liu)釘(ding)成(cheng)本高,PCB板(ban)變(bian)形(xing)導致的錯(cuo)位,模板(ban)易(yi)損壞(huai),電路板(ban)上的鉚(liu)釘(ding)形(xing)狀壓痕等,PCB板(ban)成(cheng)本高。因此(ci),融合技術(shu)已經不斷用(yong)于替代(dai)鉚(liu)釘(ding)技術(shu)。
 
PCB鉚釘技術簡介
 
根據(ju)環(huan)氧(yang)樹脂(zhi)預浸料的(de)熔化特性,熔融技術可以使預浸料在一(yi)定溫度(du)下(xia)熔化,從而將B相(xiang)環(huan)氧(yang)樹脂(zhi)轉(zhuan)化為C相(xiang)環(huan)氧(yang)樹脂(zhi),內層通過(guo)(guo)粘合劑連接。熔合是層壓(ya)過(guo)(guo)程中(zhong)最重(zhong)要的(de)工藝之(zhi)一(yi),其性能(neng)直接決定了層壓(ya)的(de)行為。關于融合技術的(de)關鍵要素包括:
 
•定位系統的精度(du)
 
定(ding)(ding)位系統的類型(xing)與對(dui)準精(jing)度直接相關內層之間,這(zhe)進一步影響通過率(lv)的百分比。優秀的定(ding)(ding)位系統應該穩(wen)定(ding)(ding),可靠且可重復性好。
 
•融合點(dian)設計
 
融(rong)合(he)點(dian)(dian)(dian)是一個必(bi)不可少的問(wen)題,因為融(rong)合(he)技術涉及(ji)眾多形狀,如方(fang)形,圓形和橢圓形。融(rong)合(he)點(dian)(dian)(dian)在面(mian)(mian)積方(fang)面(mian)(mian)應(ying)該(gai)是一致(zhi)的,因為面(mian)(mian)積太小的融(rong)合(he)點(dian)(dian)(dian)傾向于導致(zhi)熔(rong)合(he)焊接(jie)不那(nei)么牢(lao)固,而具有太大面(mian)(mian)積的熔(rong)合(he)點(dian)(dian)(dian)傾向于導致(zhi)圖像滲透,這可能(neng)導致(zhi)白(bai)點(dian)(dian)(dian),內層之間的連接(jie)松(song)散(san)或
 
•設備平整(zheng)度
 
設備平整(zheng)度會影響(xiang)聚變過(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)PCB板的(de)角度,融合過(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)的(de)力分布和時刻平衡(heng)。不均勻會導致電路板變形,這將(jiang)進一步導致層間錯位(wei)。
 
•溫(wen)度和時間控(kong)制
 
在(zai)融合技術實施過程(cheng)中,應仔(zi)細(xi)掌握和控制溫度和時間(jian),以避免燃燒,白點,脫焊(han)和老化(hua)。此外,PCB板的疊層在(zai)確定融合效應方面也起著重要(yao)作用。
 
影響FusionPCB制造中融合性能的因素
 
•熔焊接頭
 
不同(tong)的熔合和(he)熔合效(xiao)果總(zong)結在下表中,適用于(yu)不同(tong)類(lei)型的熔焊(han)接頭(tou)。
 
熔(rong)焊接頭形狀在L1/2和PP之(zhi)間(jian)在L3/4和PP之(zhi)間(jian)在L5/6和PP之(zhi)間(jian)平均債(zhai)券
 
Circle6.194.515.995.62
 
5.814.826.07
 
6.065.385.77
 
Rectangle9.777.899.468.71
 
9.906.789.58
 
8.756.949.32
 
基于(yu)(yu)上面(mian)的(de)(de)表格,因為矩(ju)(ju)形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)的(de)(de)面(mian)積(ji)是(shi)三比圓形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)大(da)一倍,矩(ju)(ju)形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)產(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)粘(zhan)(zhan)接(jie)(jie)明顯大(da)于(yu)(yu)圓形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)產(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)粘(zhan)(zhan)接(jie)(jie)。然(ran)而(er),矩(ju)(ju)形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)產(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)樹脂(zhi)流(liu)動遠大(da)于(yu)(yu)圓形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)產(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)樹脂(zhi)流(liu)動。當樹脂(zhi)流(liu)量過大(da)時(shi),部分板(ban)側可(ke)能(neng)高于(yu)(yu)板(ban),可(ke)能(neng)導致板(ban)側虛壓。對于(yu)(yu)小(xiao)尺寸PCB產(chan)品,由于(yu)(yu)可(ke)設計(ji)的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)點非常有限,而(er)且(qie)圓形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)的(de)(de)面(mian)積(ji)較小(xiao),熔(rong)(rong)(rong)接(jie)(jie)效果不足。因此,應挑選矩(ju)(ju)形(xing)(xing)(xing)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)焊接(jie)(jie)頭(tou),并應仔細設計(ji)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)接(jie)(jie)位置。隨著板(ban)向內移動,可(ke)以消除樹脂(zhi)過流(liu)的(de)(de)缺陷。
 
•熔化溫度
 
當熔(rong)(rong)化溫度(du)達(da)到時(shi)(shi)(shi)熔(rong)(rong)點300°C,熔(rong)(rong)合擴展面積較大,聚(ju)合效(xiao)果(guo)嚴重受(shou)到嚴重影響。當熔(rong)(rong)融溫度(du)達(da)到270℃時(shi)(shi)(shi),熔(rong)(rong)合擴展區域不均勻,裂縫(feng)風險大,引起融合效(xiao)應。當熔(rong)(rong)融溫度(du)達(da)到285℃時(shi)(shi)(shi),熔(rong)(rong)合膨脹均勻,沒有裂縫(feng)風險,導致最佳的(de)熔(rong)(rong)合效(xiao)應。因此,可以得出結(jie)論,在(zai)相同的(de)熔(rong)(rong)化時(shi)(shi)(shi)間和層(ceng)疊(die),285°C是多層(ceng)PCB制造的(de)最佳熔(rong)(rong)化溫度(du)。
 
•熔化時間
 
在等(deng)效(xiao)熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)溫度(du)和(he)(he)層(ceng)疊時(shi)(shi),不(bu)同的熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)時(shi)(shi)間會(hui)影響熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)擴(kuo)展(zhan)區域(yu)(yu)和(he)(he)熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)效(xiao)應。當(dang)熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)時(shi)(shi)間為(wei)(wei)12秒時(shi)(shi),熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)擴(kuo)展(zhan)區域(yu)(yu)不(bu)均(jun)勻,具有(you)(you)裂(lie)(lie)縫風(feng)險(xian)和(he)(he)不(bu)良熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)效(xiao)應。當(dang)融(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)時(shi)(shi)間為(wei)(wei)18秒時(shi)(shi),融(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)擴(kuo)展(zhan)區域(yu)(yu)較(jiao)大,融(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)效(xiao)果較(jiao)差。當(dang)熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)時(shi)(shi)間為(wei)(wei)15秒時(shi)(shi),熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)膨(peng)脹(zhang)均(jun)勻,沒有(you)(you)裂(lie)(lie)紋(wen)風(feng)險(xian)和(he)(he)最佳(jia)聚變效(xiao)應。因此(ci),在等(deng)效(xiao)熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)溫度(du)和(he)(he)等(deng)效(xiao)層(ceng)堆疊時(shi)(shi),15秒是多層(ceng)PCB制造的最佳(jia)熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)時(shi)(shi)間。融(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)時(shi)(shi)間過長或過短都會(hui)帶來不(bu)良的融(rong)合(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)效(xiao)應。
 
•層疊
 
等效(xiao)融(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)溫度(du)(du)和(he)(he)融(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)時間(jian)(jian),不同的(de)(de)層(ceng)疊決(jue)定了融(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)區(qu)域和(he)(he)融(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)效(xiao)應。在(zai)等效(xiao)的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)化時間(jian)(jian)和(he)(he)熔(rong)(rong)化溫度(du)(du)下(xia),當應用預(yu)浸(jin)(jin)料(liao)2116時,熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)擴展(zhan)(zhan)區(qu)域甚(shen)至沒(mei)有裂縫(feng)(feng),導致最佳(jia)的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)效(xiao)果(guo)。在(zai)等效(xiao)的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)化時間(jian)(jian)和(he)(he)熔(rong)(rong)化溫度(du)(du)下(xia),當應用預(yu)浸(jin)(jin)料(liao)7628時,熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)擴展(zhan)(zhan)區(qu)域甚(shen)至具有裂縫(feng)(feng)。這表(biao)明在(zai)相同的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)化時間(jian)(jian)和(he)(he)熔(rong)(rong)化溫度(du)(du)下(xia),預(yu)浸(jin)(jin)料(liao)越(yue)薄(bo),將產生更(geng)好的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)效(xiao)果(guo)。因此(ci),可以得出(chu)結論,2116預(yu)浸(jin)(jin)料(liao)或更(geng)低層(ceng)的(de)(de)疊層(ceng)適用于多層(ceng)PCB制造過程中的(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)融(rong)(rong)(rong)技術實現。
 
根據本文的(de)(de)(de)討論(lun),影(ying)響熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)效(xiao)應(ying)的(de)(de)(de)因(yin)(yin)素很多:熔(rong)(rong)焊接頭形(xing)狀,熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)溫(wen)度(du)(du),熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)時(shi)間和(he)層(ceng)疊。矩形(xing)熔(rong)(rong)焊接頭比圓形(xing)熔(rong)(rong)焊接頭具有更好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)接效(xiao)果。在(zai)等效(xiao)層(ceng)疊加(jia)和(he)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)時(shi),融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)溫(wen)度(du)(du)越高(gao),融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)擴展(zhan)區域就(jiu)越大(da)。熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)溫(wen)度(du)(du)太(tai)低會(hui)導致熔(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)擴展(zhan)區域不(bu)均勻,存在(zai)裂縫風險。融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)時(shi)間越長(chang),聚變擴展(zhan)區域越大(da)。當融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)時(shi)間超過15秒時(shi),融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)擴展(zhan)區域將擴大(da),產生不(bu)良的(de)(de)(de)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)效(xiao)應(ying)。預(yu)浸料坯結(jie)構越薄(bo),熔(rong)(rong)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)膨脹越均勻。因(yin)(yin)此,2116或更低的(de)(de)(de)預(yu)浸料是最適合(he)(he)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)的(de)(de)(de)。